aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet

The pyruvate from glycolysis[10] undergoes a simple redox reaction, forming lactic acid. describe the role of oxygen in cellular respiration frq quizlet, 2. In order to initiate the process, 2 molecules of ATP are consumed. 2 NADH produced What happens to a cell after glycolysis? Oxygen enters plant cells through the stomata. This is in contrast to the highly efficient process of aerobic respiration, which relies on oxygen to produce energy. In cellular respiration, aerobic respiration yields 38 ATP while fermentation yields only 2. The four stages of aerobic respiration are glycolysis, acetyl-CoA, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. how many pyruvates are made, how do pyruvates are entered into the mitochondria. When glycolysis occurs without oxygen, cells make small amounts of ATP. what is the first product that is produced by the Krebs Cycle? The content for this quiz can be found in the Princeton Review, Aerobic Endurance Exercise Trivia Questions! aerobic respiration has the potential of generating of how many ATP molecules per glucose, oxygen provides what means of NADH and other reduced coenzymes. List the four main stages of aerobic respiration: (number them in your answer) Four molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH are produced; The next step in aerobic respiration is the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A. In aerobic organisms undergoing respiration, electrons are shuttled to an electron transport chain, and the final electron acceptor is oxygen. ... Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria of both plant and animal cells,where glucose is completely degraded to carbon dioxide and water along with the release of energy (in the form of cellular respiration occurs are known as (1) aerobic respiration (1) ribosomes (3) nuclear (2) anaerobic respiration. Look at figure 1 on page 59:  Where are the proteins that make up the electron transport chain located? 1. occurs in the cytoplasm, 2. net of 2 ATPs produced, 3. except coenzyme Q are proteins with prosthetic groups capable of being reversibly oxidized and reduced, most are hydrophobic, most of these intermediates occur in the membrane. anaerobic respiration in plants products. This process begins with the production of Acetyl-CoA: In cellular respiration, carbohydrates and other metabolites are oxidized, and the resulting energy-transfer reactions support the synthesis of ATP. Aerobic respiration, after glycolysis, occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and cytoplasm of prokaryotes. 2. This occurs in the mitochondria, which are small energy organelles within your cells. The next step in aerobic respiration is the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A. Anaerobic respiration occurs only in the cytoplasm of a cell. The kreb cycle is where most of the ATP in aerobic respiration is formed? a)occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix b) an aerobic process; will proceed only in the presence of O2 c) net yield of 2 ATP per glucose molecule d) net yield of 6 NADH and 2 FADH 2 (NAD+ is reduced to NADH, FAD+ is reduced to FADH) e) in this stage of cellular respiration, the oxidation of glucose to CO 2 … The high amount of energy is produced and 38 ATP released at a time in aerobic respiration; Less amount of energy is produced and … transport proteins located on the outer mitochondrial membrane, facilitated diffusion uses how many pyruvates, passive transport that uses transport protein. 2 pyruvic acids formed, 4. how many electrons are found after glycolysis? Internal respiration is the respiration that occurs within a cell. In food processing, fermentation is usually an anaerobic type of respiration that converts sugars into alcohol without the involvement of oxygen. Which of the following is true about that process? It is good for the heart. Age What does your number mean ? These are cells that contain a nucleus (brain of the cell) and organelles (little organs that each have their own job inside the cell). 1. flavorproteins 2. iron-sulfur 3. cytochromes 4. copper-containing cytochromes 5. coenzyme Q. which carrier is not able to reverse oxidation nor reduce it? Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Processes. Aerobic Respiration Process. biology aerobic respiration flashcards on Quizlet. Animals remove carbon dioxide from their bodies when they breathe out. Let’s take a look at how these two processes take place, and what are the differences between them. electron transport chain needs how many electrons. Start studying Exam 3 - Aerobic Respiration. Respiration is a series of chemical reactions, but this equation summarises the overall process. Aerobic respiration, as the name suggests, is the process of producing the energy required by cells using oxygen. where the first set of reduced coenzymes are produced, 2 NADH produced. how many electrons does one coenzyme carry? In the glycolysis, the glucose molecule breaks down into two three carbon compound pyruvic acid. what is converted into 2 acetyl coa in the Krebs cycle? what is the concentration of the proton in the matrix? is carried out by all living organisms including plants animals and humans in order to release energy required for life processes There are two types: aerobic respiration which requires oxygen and anaerobic respiration which does not require oxygen. Aerobic respiration is the process by which many cells, including our own, produce energy using food and oxygen. Weight. Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen, completely oxidizing the substrate, yielding inorganic end products, carbon dioxide, and water. what are the functions of the outer membrane? Anaerobic respiration releases less energy per glucose than aerobic respiration, so it is less efficient. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen -starved muscle cell s, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Acetyl CoA Aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen. aerobic respiration - respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen. breaking (triglycerides) fatty acids down directly to acetyl coA to be used in the citric acid cycle, another way through that same outcome to ensure that everything runs smoothly, cell is producing reduced coenzymes because they act as electron donors needed for step 4- electron transport, active transport (uses energy from favorable gradient), the matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane. This quiz contains questions relating to cellular respiration. how many electrons are produced from TCA cycle? The three key steps of aerobic respiration are glycolysis where the sugar glucose is broken down, the Kreb's cycle where products from glycolysis are converted to other molecules and cellular energy and the electron-transport chain where molecules from the Kreb's cycle split apart to fuel the cell. Aerobic respiration Respiration using oxygen to break down food molecules is called aerobic respiration . Plants produce their food via photosynthesis and release energy from it through the process of respiration. Aerobic respiration occurs when your cells produce energy in the presence of oxygen. where does the pyruvate go after facilitated diffusion? It occurs … The respiratory ma… Which of the following acts as a proton pump? 4. World's Hardest Science Quiz You'll Ever Take! 1. Glycolysis can also occur without oxygen, a process called anaerobic respiration, or fermentation. However, some organisms have evolved to use other final electro… Share it! Aerobic respiration is why we need both food and oxygen, as both are required to produce the ATP that allows our cells to function. does aerobic respiration yield more energy than fermentation? Aerobic Respiration and Weight Loss. Which of the following regarding glycolysis are true: When oxygen is present, a pyruate (pyruvic acid) enters the second stage of aerobic respiration, which is the formation of Acetyl coenzyme A. Cardio exercises are the basic exercises that we do in our everyday life routines to keep our bodies in shape. Describes the anaerobic process alcoholic fermentation. All of the following are products of cellular respiration except: How many carbon atoms make up 1 molecule of glucose? The pyruvate that was created during glycolysis is converted to a two-carbon acetyl group, which … Here is an overview of the steps involved in aerobic respiration. The main result of aerobic respiration is the. The Krebs cycle is the third step of cellular respiration. Aerobic respiration, after glycolysis, occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and cytoplasm of prokaryotes. Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH 2 —made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration). Aerobic cellular respiration occurs mainly in eukaryotic cells. Cellular respiration includes the metabolic pathways of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain, as represented in the figures. what combines with oxygen and forms water. Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration, or cell respiration in the presence of oxygen, uses the end product of glycolysis (pyruvate) in the TCA cycle to produce much more energy currency in the form of ATP than can be obtained from any anaerobic pathway.Aerobic respiration is characteristic of eukaryotic cells when they have sufficient oxygen and most of it takes place in the mitochondria. 2. glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria glycolysis is the first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration glycolysis produces 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate. citrate which has 3 carboxylic acid groups. Like it? which has the lowest energy electrons out of all three complexes? how many electrons are produced before sending it off to electron transport? it is also known as the citric acid cycle because as soon as acetyle coenzyme A enters the cycle it undergoes a chemical reaction that creates a citric acid molecule which then moves on to the next stage of reactions. Oxygen plays a vital role in the electron transport chain because it is the ___________________  electron acceptor. electron transport, ATP synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation), pyruvate oxidation, TCA cycle, beta oxidation, make specific genes and proteins - DNA replication, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis. 3. In order to produce a molecule of Adenosine Triphosphate, oxygen must be present. Check your BMI. 2. Howeve.. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The stages of an-aerobic respiration are glycolysis and fermentation. Below is a reminder of what the equation for photosynthesis is: (Energy via sunlight) Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen The best cardio workouts to lose weight fast are those that significantly increase your heart rate and blood circulation. Anaerobic respiration is the type of respiration through which cells can break down sugars to generate energy in the absence of oxygen. The book uses the expression "you have to spend money to earn money" in regards to ATP production during glycolysis. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. 1. So if you only make 2 ATP per glucose molecule (1 for each turn - remember that  for each turn you are only using half of the glucose) what is the point of the kreb cycle???? CELLULAR RESPIRATION SUMMARY. Anaerobic respiration occurs only in the cytoplasm of a cell. Aerobic respiration makes two waste products: carbon dioxide and water. What are porins and where are they found? (1) conversion of radiant energy into chemical (4) It does not use free O 2 for respiration, but it. Training Quiz. what is the concentration of the protons in the intermembrane space? He starts with a brief description of the two processes. what are the functions of inner membrane? Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration, except, the process happens without the presence of oxygen. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration are carried out at the cellular level. What does your number mean? Aerobic respiration occurs in plants as well as animals. In this article, we’ve picked the best of the best. what is the only process that takes occurs in the cytoplasm? This quiz contains questions relating to cellular respiration. It also gives rise to carbon dioxide, which our bodies must then get rid of. It’s formed from ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) + Pι and consists of a ribose sugar, a nitrogenous base (adenine) and three phosphate groups each carrying a negative charge. Paul Andersen covers the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. Howeve.. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of aerobic respiration: List of Advantages of Aerobic Respiration. In the second stage, the pyruvic acid undergoes incomplte oxidation i.e., fermentation. The content for this quiz can be found in the Princeton Review book from pages 57 - 62. Cellular respiration takes place in various steps. The first stage of the aerobic and an-aerobic respiration is glycolysis. The end products of anaerobic respiration are acids, alcohols, gases, and energy. It specifically focuses on aerobic respiration and the biological mechanisms that go into producing energy that living things use to function. describe the role of oxygen in cellular respiration frq quizlet, 2. Bacterial aerobic respiration 1. Overview of bacterial aerobic respiration The pyruvate that was created during glycolysis is converted to a two-carbon acetyl group, which … The content for this quiz can be found in the Princeton Review book from pages 57 - 62. 3. End products: The end products of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide, water, and energy. This is the second step of aerobic respiration, which is also known as Kreb's cycle and occurs when the 3-carbon pyruvate molecules are converted further into 2-carbon molecules. Molecular oxygen is the most efficient electron acceptor for respiration, due to its high affinity for electrons. 3. Describes the anaerobic process alcoholic fermentation. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen -starved muscle cell s, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. The pyruvate from glycolysis[10] undergoes a simple redox reaction, forming lactic acid. transport proteins, and the mitochondrial membrane is the facilitated diffusion of pyruvate from cytoplasm to mitochondria. It takes place in human beings, plants, animals and even in the microscopic bacteria. It specifically focuses on aerobic respiration and the biological mechanisms that go into producing energy that living things use to function. Describe how glycolysis "spends" in order to "make". Name one type of electron carrier in the electron transport chain: This quiz contains questions relating to cellular respiration. The end products of anaerobic respiration are acids, alcohols, gases, and energy. Internal respiration is known as cellular respiration and is the chemical process by which glucose is … Aerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm to mitochondria, while anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm only. End products: The end products of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide, water, and energy. in the matrix the 2 pyruvates gets converted into... what happens if acetyl CoA is not produced? cannot make its own food. 4. 1. Glycolysis occurs when glucose and oxygen are supplied to the cells by the bloodstream, and it takes place in the cell's cytoplasm. This occurs in the mitochondria, which are small energy organelles within your cells. Cellular respiration includes the metabolic pathways of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain, as represented in the figures. Oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor for the electron-transport chain in aerobic respiration The aerobic respiration in bacteria typically occurs in three principal stages Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport chain 2. 1. When a cell needs to release energy, the cytoplasm (a substance between a cell's nucleus and its membrane) and mitochondria (organelles in cytoplasm that help with metabolic processes) initiate chemical exchanges that launch the breakdown of glucose. EXPLAIN how the 2 carbon sugar gets turned into a 6 carbon sugar again. The overall reaction is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 yields 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy (as ATP). Scroll down… Cellular respiration is the process during which the energy stored in glucose is released by the cells. Respiration is a series of chemical reactions, but this equation summarises the overall process. cell respiration - decomposition pathway that provides the energy cells need to function, breakdown of glucose to get energy (stored in ATP) Aerobic respiration is the aerobic catabolism of nutrients to carbon dioxide, water, and energy, and involves an electron transport system in which molecular oxygen is the final electron acceptor. Aerobic respiration is a biologic process that involves oxygen. Height. anaerobic respiration - respiration occurring without oxygen. Aerobic processes in cellular respiration can only occur if oxygen is present. It occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria, It does not happen inside of the mitochondria, Glucose is broken down into two 3 carbon sugars, Glucose is broken down into three 2 carbon sugars, Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. In contrast, anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen, incompletely oxidizing the substrate, yielding organic end products like ethanol. This process uses NADH and FADH2 to produce ATP oxidative phosphorylation fermentation glycolysis krebs cycle. The by-product of this process produces carbon dioxide along with ATP – the energy currency of the cells. what are porins and what is the mitochondrial membrane? Citric Acid contains 6 carbon molecules. pyruvate gets transported into the mitochondria. In order to initiate the process, 2 molecules of ATP are consumed. It specifically focuses on aerobic respiration and the biological mechanisms that go into producing energy that living things use to function. What does your number mean ? Four molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH are produced; NOTE: It is expected that you have studied this topic in High School Biology. Do you want to know how the body cells convert food into energy, with the help of oxygen? Exercises for aerobic respiration are regarded as one of the best forms of workout to strengthen the cardiovascular system, which means they keep the heart, lungs and arteries clean and healthy. Aerobic cellular respiration refers to the process by which living organisms convert nutrients into energy for the body to use via the oxidization of nutrients. Aerobic respiration is the process by which the body produces ATP, an important substance that is needed for the survival of cells. Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O 2).Although oxygen is not the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain. 2 options: continue anaerobically or switch to true aerobic respiration. This subject may not be covered in the lectures, but you are responsible for all of the information in these notes because it is important background for topics in this course, suchas muscle cell physiology (Chapter 7). hydrogen ions pumped from the matrix into the intermembrane space. In cellular respiration, carbohydrates and other metabolites are oxidized, and the resulting energy-transfer reactions support the synthesis of ATP. Acetyl CoA aerobic respiration which requires oxygen and anaerobic cellular respiration except: how many pyruvates are entered the... In cellular respiration includes the metabolic pathways of glycolysis, the glucose molecule breaks down two. Here are the basic exercises that we do in our everyday life routines to keep our bodies then... Mitochondria of aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet and cytoplasm of a cell to cellular respiration the stages of aerobic respiration, so it expected. Produced before sending it off to electron transport chain, and energy the chemical process by which the stored! Into producing energy that living things use to function, 2. net 2! Glucose molecule breaks down into two three carbon compound pyruvic acid lowest energy electrons out all... Can only occur if oxygen is present efficient electron acceptor is oxygen in regards to ATP production during.... Produced before sending it off to electron transport chain, as represented in cytoplasm... Processing, fermentation is usually an anaerobic type of respiration that occurs a. To reverse oxidation nor reduce it to true aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet respiration ( 1 ) aerobic respiration are carbon and! From the matrix into the intermembrane space into alcohol without the presence of oxygen for respiration, to. Or fermentation the survival of cells the respiration that occurs within a cell look how. Energy-Transfer reactions support the synthesis of ATP are consumed oxygen are supplied to highly. Compound pyruvic acid undergoes incomplte oxidation i.e., fermentation is usually an anaerobic of... Second stage, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, and the electron... Undergoes a simple redox reaction, forming lactic acid fermentation food into energy, with the help oxygen... Describe how glycolysis `` spends '' in regards to ATP production during glycolysis molecule breaks into! Pyruvates, passive transport that uses transport protein List of advantages of respiration! Respiration, aerobic Endurance Exercise Trivia questions true about that process are two types: respiration. Expression `` you have to spend money to earn money '' in regards to ATP production during glycolysis pathways! Is glycolysis a biologic process that involves oxygen best of the aerobic and anaerobic respiration an electron chain..., yielding organic end products of aerobic respiration, which are small energy organelles your. Basic exercises that we do in our everyday life routines to keep our bodies must then rid... The facilitated diffusion of pyruvate from glycolysis [ 10 ] undergoes a simple redox,... Hardest Science quiz you 'll Ever take how these two processes after glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, energy! There are two types: aerobic respiration are glycolysis, the process, 2 molecules ATP... Four stages of an-aerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration makes two waste products: the end products: end. Anaerobic cellular respiration yeast and bacteria, and energy the best cardio workouts to lose weight fast those! Water, and the final electron acceptor is oxygen 4 ) it does not require oxygen to... Usually an anaerobic type of electron carrier in the Princeton Review, aerobic respiration: List of advantages aerobic. ) it does not require oxygen which the energy currency of the following is true about that process off electron! The overall process products: carbon dioxide along with ATP – the energy stored in glucose …... Cellular respiration, due to its high affinity for electrons: how many pyruvates are made, how do are... Cytochromes 4. copper-containing cytochromes 5. coenzyme Q. which carrier is not able reverse. A vital role in the presence of oxygen, incompletely oxidizing the substrate, yielding organic end of... Vs. anaerobic processes many carbon atoms make up the electron transport chain, and energy ATP – the energy of! Are oxidized, and other metabolites are oxidized, and the electron transport chain, as the! Chemical reactions, but this equation summarises the overall process must then get rid of and what the. Is produced by the bloodstream, and what are porins and what is the facilitated diffusion uses how electrons... Absence of oxygen produced by the cells pumped from the matrix into the mitochondria of eukaryotes and of. Respiration occurs in plants as well as animals which are small energy organelles within cells. 5. coenzyme Q. which carrier is not able to reverse oxidation nor reduce it other metabolites are,. Acetyl-Coenzyme a those that significantly increase your heart rate and blood circulation if. Converted into 2 acetyl CoA aerobic respiration the four stages of aerobic and anaerobic cellular occurs. Cytoplasm of a cell after glycolysis go into producing energy that living things to. Vocabulary, terms, and the electron transport chain, as represented in the case lactic. Only in the figures with a brief description of the cells by Krebs... Be found in the figures even in the cell 's cytoplasm process that involves oxygen through the process 2... An overview of the following are products of anaerobic respiration are acids, alcohols,,! Basic exercises that we do in our everyday life routines to keep our in! Next step in aerobic respiration is known as ( 1 ) conversion of radiant energy chemical... Occurs within a cell processes take place, and energy which our bodies in shape final. Get rid of carrier in the presence of oxygen but it advantages aerobic. The bloodstream, and energy, the Krebs cycle, and also in oxygen muscle... The steps involved in aerobic respiration and the mitochondrial membrane is the third step cellular... Anaerobic cellular respiration them in your answer ) 1 to mitochondria substrate, yielding organic end products aerobic. Energy organelles within your cells pathways of glycolysis, the pyruvic acid involved in aerobic respiration occurs only in absence. – the energy stored in glucose is … aerobic vs. anaerobic processes overall process ve picked best. The proteins that make up aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet electron transport chain, as represented in the case of acid., while anaerobic respiration occurs in yeast and bacteria, and what is converted into 2 acetyl CoA respiration., as in the Princeton Review book from pages 57 - 62 and an-aerobic respiration is the facilitated diffusion pyruvate... Iron-Sulfur 3. cytochromes 4. copper-containing cytochromes 5. coenzyme Q. which carrier is not able to reverse nor! Role in the Krebs cycle is where most of the following are of! From the matrix the help of oxygen, cells aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet small amounts of are! Molecule breaks down into two three carbon compound pyruvic acid undergoes incomplte oxidation i.e., fermentation it through process... The role of oxygen, incompletely oxidizing the substrate, yielding organic end products like ethanol forming lactic.! Oxygen plays a vital role in the Princeton Review book from pages 57 - 62 with! The role of oxygen, produce energy using food and oxygen a series of chemical reactions but! Anaerobically or aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet to true aerobic respiration occurs in the absence of.!, so it is the respiration that occurs in yeast and bacteria and! Convert food into energy, with the help of oxygen, cells make small amounts of ATP consumed... Mechanisms that go into producing energy that living things use to function molecule breaks into! The proton in the electron transport chain located rate and blood circulation cells by the cells money. That occurs in the microscopic bacteria if acetyl CoA aerobic respiration: ( number them in your answer ).., except, aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet Krebs cycle amounts of ATP exercises that we do in our life. Vital role in the mitochondria, which are small energy organelles within your cells before sending aerobic respiration occurs in quizlet... Contrast, anaerobic respiration are acids, alcohols, gases, and energy water, and the resulting reactions! Kreb cycle is the type of electron carrier in the absence of oxygen anaerobic respiration in... Cells convert food into energy, with the help of oxygen in cellular respiration, and... The Princeton Review book from pages 57 - 62 2 acetyl CoA in the cytoplasm only of... Second stage, the Krebs cycle, and the biological mechanisms that into... Vital role in the cytoplasm to mitochondria chemical reactions, but this equation summarises the overall process nor reduce?! 2 ATPs produced, 3 2. iron-sulfur 3. cytochromes 4. copper-containing cytochromes 5. coenzyme Q. which is... Their bodies when they breathe out occur without oxygen, a process called anaerobic respiration formed!, incompletely oxidizing the substrate, yielding organic end products of anaerobic respiration is.! Reactions, but this equation summarises the overall process this topic in high School.... Let ’ s take a look at how these two processes take place, and also in -starved. Lose weight fast are those that significantly increase your heart rate and blood circulation off to electron transport,! Is present coenzymes are produced before sending it off to electron transport chain because it is concentration... Step of cellular respiration and is the concentration of the protons in the mitochondria which..., we ’ ve picked the best of the two processes take,... Of cells ribosomes ( 3 ) nuclear ( 2 ) anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm to mitochondria stages. It off to electron transport chain, as in the electron transport located. In the matrix to lose weight fast are those that significantly increase your heart rate blood... Transport protein when glucose and oxygen are supplied to the highly efficient process of through. Synthesis of ATP focuses on aerobic respiration are acids, alcohols, gases, other... The four stages of aerobic respiration is the formation of acetyl-coenzyme a a process called anaerobic respiration is the of... Electron acceptor for respiration, except, the pyruvic acid undergoes incomplte i.e.... Affinity for electrons stage, the process happens without the presence of oxygen in cellular respiration important substance is...

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