His mother Rosa had him baptized into the Roman Catholic Church, and took her children to services every Sunday.  Two days later on 27 April, they were stopped near the village of Dongo (Lake Como) by communist partisans named Valerio and Bellini and identified by the Political Commissar of the partisans' 52nd Garibaldi Brigade, Urbano Lazzaro. The list put forward was ultimately approved by 98.43% of voters.. As a close ally of Adolf Hitler during World War II, he is considered a central figure in the birth of European fascism.In 1943, Mussolini was replaced as prime minister and served as the head of the Italian Social Republic until his capture and execution by Italian partisans in 1945. In the power vacuum that existed during the first three or four months of the occupation, the semi-autonomous bands were virtually uncontrollable. Mussolini structured this process taking in view the emotional side of childhood: "Childhood and adolescence alike ... cannot be fed solely by concerts, theories, and abstract teaching. goal meaning: 1. an area on a playing field, that usually has two posts with a net fixed behind them, where…. In 1923, he began the "Pacification of Libya" and ordered the bombing of Corfu in retaliation for the murder of an Italian general. , Mussolini became active in the Italian socialist movement in Switzerland, working for the paper L'Avvenire del Lavoratore, organizing meetings, giving speeches to workers, and serving as secretary of the Italian workers' union in Lausanne. Class can become an integral part of the nation, but the one cannot eclipse the other. After the king agreed the armistice with the allies, on 12 September 1943 Mussolini was rescued from captivity in the Gran Sasso raid by German paratroopers and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors. Add your answer and earn points. In September 1911, Mussolini participated in a riot, led by socialists, against the Italian war in Libya. Join now. Benito Mussolini's successful flouting of the League of Nations' authority heralded a new dark era in world politics and continues to have its resonance in today's world. Mussolini unleashed, 1939–1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War.  Furthermore, the costs of occupying Ethiopia was to cost the Italian treasury another 21.1 billion lire between 1936 and 1940. forcing banks, businesses, and private citizens to surrender all foreign-issued stock and bond holdings to the Bank of Italy. Tommaso Di Francesco, Giacomo Scotti (1999), A copy of an existing document is available online. , Mussolini and the fascists managed to be simultaneously revolutionary and traditionalist; because this was vastly different from anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described[by whom?]  There were even some Jews in the National Fascist Party, such as Ettore Ovazza, who in 1935 founded the Jewish Fascist paper La Nostra Bandiera ("Our Flag"). He was a sincere and passionate advocate, first of vigilant and armed neutrality, and later of war; and he did not believe that he was compromising with his personal and political honesty by making use of every means—no matter where they came from or wherever he might obtain them—to pay for his newspaper, his program and his line of action.  Between 1935 and 1939, Mussolini's wars cost Italy the equivalent of US$500 billion in 1999 values, a sum that was even proportionally a larger burden given that Italy was such a poor country.  After his release, he helped expel Ivanoe Bonomi and Leonida Bissolati from the Socialist Party, as they were two "revisionists" who had supported the war. What were Mussolini's guiding principles and ultimate goals?  Mussolini ordered Marshal Rodolfo Graziani "to initiate and systematically conduct a policy of terror and extermination against the rebels and the population in complicity with them. It worked, and Mussolini was appointed prime minister that same year. The truth we aim to teach them should appeal foremost to their fantasy, to their hearts, and only then to their minds". First, he went beyond the vague promise of future national renewal, and proved the movement could actually seize power and operate a comprehensive government in a major country along fascist lines. And where it has not been lowered, now that I am here, no one will have it lowered. The King's controversial decision has been explained by historians as a combination of delusions and fears; Mussolini enjoyed wide support in the military and among the industrial and agrarian elites, while the King and the conservative establishment were afraid of a possible civil war and ultimately thought they could use Mussolini to restore law and order in the country, but failed to foresee the danger of a totalitarian evolution.  As such, Mussolini believed that an alliance with Germany was preferable to an alignment with Britain and France as it was better to be allied with the strong instead of the weak. however, Italy was brought down by Hitler. Hitler says so.. He persuaded himself and he persuaded great multitudes of people that two great systems of ideas faced each other in the world, "Leftism" and "Rightism", and that he and his associated Dictators embodied the latter. However, when the socialists adopted a policy of neutrality in World War One, Mussolini opposed it and was later expelled from the party. High School. B) a New Roman Empire. In the same year, an electoral law abolished parliamentary elections. Overall, he totaled about nine months of active, front-line trench warfare. In 1936, he imposed price controls. The bodies of Mussolini and his mistress were then taken to Milan, where they were hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm their demise.. , Mussolini was an admirer of Friedrich Nietzsche. he wanted Italy to be a great country, one that others were jealous of, just as Rome was, in its day. Many of the socialists, liberals, and moderates boycotted Parliament in the Aventine Secession, hoping to force Victor Emmanuel to dismiss Mussolini. This was notable at the Munich Conference, as no other national leader spoke anything other than their native language; Mussolini was described as effectively being the "chief interpreter" at the Conference.  Mussolini favored a policy of brutality partly because he believed the Ethiopians were not a nation because black people were too stupid to have a sense of nationality and therefore the guerrillas were just "bandits". It included children between the ages of 8 and 18, grouped as the Balilla and the Avanguardisti. The Italian giants picked up the Scudetto for the ninth consecutive season in July, ... but the French side advanced on away goals after drawing 2-2 on ... our main objective was to win the league  In April 1939, Mussolini ordered the Italian invasion of Albania. Class reveals itself as a collection of interests—but the nation is a history of sentiments, traditions, language, culture, and race. He made numerous comparisons between himself and Julius Caesar, the ancient Roman leader. He continued: Yes, madam, I am finished. One thing is now certain, that America will enter the conflict and that the conflict will be so long that she will be able to realize all her potential forces. Italy's gains in Greece and Albania were also lost to Germany, with the exception of the Italian Aegean Islands, which remained nominally under RSI rule. , Despite making such attacks, Mussolini tried to win popular support by appeasing the Catholic majority in Italy.  The Italian home front was also in bad shape as the Allied bombings were taking their toll. Benito Mussolini was born and raised in Dovia di Predappio, Italy. Mussolini main economic aim was to bring Italy’s economy to a somehow same level as France and Britain to threaten them and the other great industrial powers.  Hitler had made plans to arrest the king, Crown Prince Umberto, Badoglio, and the rest of the government and restore Mussolini to power in Rome, but the government's escape south likely foiled those plans. One of those executed was his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. Despite Mussolini's imprisonment for opposing the Italo-Turkish War in Africa as "nationalist delirium tremens" and "a miserable war of conquest", after the Abyssinia Crisis of 1935–1936, in the Second Italo–Ethiopian War Italy invaded Ethiopia following border incidents occasioned by Italian inclusions over the vaguely drawn border between Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland. Has it ever existed? , General elections were held in the form of a referendum on 24 March 1929. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd, 1998. pp. After Adolf Hitler came into power, threatening Italian interests in Austria and the Danube basin, Mussolini proposed the Four Power Pact with Britain, France and Germany in 1933.  He fully demonstrated his transformation in a speech that acknowledged the nation as an entity, a notion he had rejected prior to the war, saying: The nation has not disappeared. Such a league, though, offered an opportunity to cling to regional identity and compete against other cities and regions. He had been convicted for this in absentia.  After the sanctions against Italy ended in July 1936, the French tried hard to revive the Stresa Front, displaying what Sullivan called "an almost humiliating determination to retain Italy as an ally". Learn more. According to Mussolini: "Fascist education is moral, physical, social, and military: it aims to create a complete and harmoniously developed human, a fascist one according to our views".  This law applied in the elections of 6 April 1924. In the same way, Mussolini argued that Italy was right to follow an imperialist policy in Africa because he saw all black people as "inferior" to whites. He died, as his last words testify, completely unaware of the fact that the rational treatment of human affairs does not admit of that bilaterality which the traditions of warfare require. Hegel, Karl Kautsky, and Georges Sorel, picking out what appealed to him and discarding the rest, forming no coherent political philosophy of his own yet impressing his companions as a potential revolutionary of uncommon personality and striking presence. Landowners grew wheat on unsuitable soil using all the advances of modern science, and although the wheat harvest increased, prices rose, consumption fell and high tariffs were imposed.  The Italian Socialist Party decided to oppose the war after anti-militarist protestors had been killed, resulting in a general strike called Red Week. Historically, the largest neo-fascist party was the Italian Social Movement (Movimento Sociale Italiano), which disbanded in 1995 and was replaced by National Alliance, a conservative party that distanced itself from Fascism (its founder, former foreign minister Gianfranco Fini, declared during an official visit to Israel that Fascism was "an absolute evil"). Factories all over Italy were brought to a virtual standstill because raw materials, such as coal and oil, were lacking. In this way he succeeded in keeping power in his own hands and preventing the emergence of any rival. By Mussolini's reckoning, the Italian population had to reach 60 million to enable Italy to fight a major war—hence his relentless demands for Italian women to have more children in order to reach that number. Benito Mussolini - Benito Mussolini - Rise to power: Wounded while serving with the bersaglieri (a corps of sharpshooters), he returned home a convinced antisocialist and a man with a sense of destiny. Mussolini went to fight in the war. The corpse of the deposed leader was subject to ridicule and abuse. These politics included the themes of racial superiority, xenophobia, and imperialism that defined his actions as a dictator. 178–203 from. He wrote there positive articles about Czechoslovak Legions in Italy. In February 1909, Mussolini again left Italy, this time to take the job as the secretary of the labor party in the Italian-speaking city of Trento, which at the time was part of Austria-Hungary (it is now within Italy).  For Mussolini, Italy's current population of 40 million was insufficient to fight a major war, and he needed to increase the population to at least 60 million Italians before he would be ready for war. Financed by the French government and Italian industrialists, both of whom favoured war against Austria, he assumed the editorship of Il Popolo d’Italia (“The People of Italy”), in which he unequivocally stated his new philosophy: “From today onward we are all Italians and nothing but Italians. Mussolini also later credited the Christian socialist Charles Péguy and the syndicalist Hubert Lagardelle as some of his influences. On Easter Sunday 1946, his body was located and dug up by Domenico Leccisi and two other neo-Fascists. , In the early 1920s, Mussolini stated that Fascism would never raise a "Jewish Question" and in an article he wrote he stated "Italy knows no antisemitism and we believe that it will never know it," and then elaborated, "let us hope that Italian Jews will continue to be sensible enough so as not to give rise to antisemitism in the only country where it has never existed. , Mussolini rejected egalitarianism, a core doctrine of socialism. On the morning of 28 October, King Victor Emmanuel III, who according to the Albertine Statute held the supreme military power, refused the government request to declare martial law, which led to Facta's resignation.  A piece of evidence regarding Mussolini's response to the attack on Pearl Harbor comes from the diary of his Foreign Minister Ciano: A night telephone call from Ribbentrop. The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists, and anarchists at parades and demonstrations; all of these factions were also involved in clashes against each other. He was a bully at school and moody at home. , George Seldes wrote in 1936 that although the express trains carrying tourists generally—though not always—ran on schedule, the same was not true for the smaller lines, where delays were frequent, while Ruth Ben-Ghiat has said that "they improved the lines that had a political meaning to them".. As dictator of Italy and founder of the fascist movement, Mussolini inspired other totalitarian rulers such as Adolf Hitler, Francisco Franco, and António de Oliveira Salazar.. Mussolini ordered a cover-up, but witnesses saw the car that transported Matteotti's body parked outside Matteotti's residence, which linked Amerigo Dumini to the murder. He died by execution in Giulino di Mezzegra, Italy in 1945. and amid bitter polemics against that newspaper and its chief backers—the thesis of Italian intervention in the war against the militarism of the Central Empires. Dumini was imprisoned for two years.  In 1903, he was arrested by the Bernese police because of his advocacy of a violent general strike, spent two weeks in jail, and was deported to Italy. Despite these similarities, Hitler and Mussolini weren’t always on the same page. With the assassination of Dollfuss, Mussolini attempted to distance himself from Hitler by rejecting much of the racialism (particularly Nordicism and Germanicism) and antisemitism espoused by the German radical. His earliest (and one of the best known) was the Battle for Wheat, by which 5,000 new farms were established and five new agricultural towns (among them Littoria and Sabaudia) on land reclaimed by draining the Pontine Marshes. Events in Africa had changed by early 1941 as Operation Compass had forced the Italians back into Libya, causing high losses in the Italian Army. His dreams of empire led to the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 and a declaration of war on the Allies in 1940. When the Austrian 'austro-fascist' Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss with dictatorial power was assassinated on 25 July 1934 by National-Socialist supporters, Mussolini even threatened Germany with war in the event of a German invasion of Austria. Does not exist. A restless child, Mussolini was disobedient, unruly, and aggressive.  Mussolini showed little visible reaction, even though this effectively gave the king legal authorization to sack him. Find an answer to your question What main groups supported mussolinis effort to overthrow the government in italy 1.  Italy's refusal to comply with German demands of Jewish persecution influenced other countries.  Additionally, Italy was to lose 4,000 men killed fighting in the Spanish Civil War while Italian intervention in Spain cost Italy another 12 to 14 billion lire. Meanwhile, Operation Marita took place in Yugoslavia to end the Greco-Italian War, resulting in an Axis victory and the Occupation of Greece by Italy and Germany. He was influenced by anti-Austrian Italian nationalist sentiments, believing that the war offered Italians in Austria-Hungary the chance to liberate themselves from rule of the Habsburgs. He argued that the fall of Hohenzollern and Habsburg monarchies and the repression of "reactionary" Turkey would create conditions beneficial for the working class. He began to criticize the Italian Socialist Party and socialism itself for having failed to recognize the national problems that had led to the outbreak of the war. At the age of 19, a short, pale young man with a powerful jaw and enormous, dark, piercing eyes, he left Italy for Switzerland with a nickel medallion of Karl Marx in his otherwise empty pockets.  With that, Mussolini grew more interested in the German offer of a military alliance, which had first been made in May 1938. B) a New Roman Empire. The national alliance, consisting of Fascists, most of the old Liberals and others, won 64% of the vote. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. During this time, Petacci's brother posed as a Spanish consul. There must be thousands who can support this attestation. In the end, the League of Nations proved powerless, and Greece was forced to comply with Italian demands. Italy, 1918–1945: the first appearance of fascism. Like all dictators he made liberal use of the threat of extrajudicial violence, as well as actual violence by his Blackshirts, to frighten his opposition.. Fascism, Fascist Party, Il Duce. " He valued Nietzsche's concept of the superman, "The supreme egoist who defied both God and the masses, who despised egalitarianism and democracy, who believed in the weakest going to the wall and pushing them if they did not go fast enough.  This perception of the failure of orthodox socialism in the light of the outbreak of World War I was not solely held by Mussolini; other pro-interventionist Italian socialists such as Filippo Corridoni and Sergio Panunzio had also denounced classical Marxism in favor of intervention. It was during this period, and after, that the nationalist and anti-Bolshevik strands of thought that would characterize his later politics began to emerge. What were Mussonlini's support groups? Newspaper editors were all personally chosen by Mussolini, and only those in possession of a certificate of approval from the Fascist Party could practice journalism. , Hitler was intent on invading Poland, though Ciano warned this would likely lead to war with the Allies.  At the same time that the Italian military was falling behind the other great powers, a full scale arms race had broken out, with Germany, Britain and France spending increasingly large sums of money on their militaries as the 1930s advanced, a situation that Mussolini privately admitted seriously limited Italy's ability to fight a major war on its own, and thus required a great power ally to compensate for increasing Italian military backwardness..